June 2019: Underwater Robotic Sensors Deployed in Gulf of Maine to Improve Toxic Algal Bloom Predictions in the Eastern Gulf of Maine, Podcast: Uncovering the Mystery of Harmful Algal Blooms, Harmful Algae: Resources from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Harmful Algal Blooms: Resources from the Environmental Protection Agency, Harmful Algal Blooms: Resources from the Centers for Disease Control, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Improving the Gulf of Maine HAB Forecast with Environmental Sample Processors, NCCOS, IOOS Award $11.6 Million for Harmful Algal Bloom Research, State of Maryland Eyes on the Bay Harmful Algal Blooms, Harmful Algal Blooms in Lower York & Lower James Rivers and Chesapeake Bay, State of Virginia Algal Bloom Surveillance Map, Long Island Sound: Harmful Algal Blooms and Marine Biotoxins, Stonybrook University Real time Water Quality Data, New England Harmful Algal Bloom / Red Tide Information, Massachusetts Shellfish Sanitation Program, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services Shellfish Monitoring Program. Bot. It is suggested that ambient conditions and food supply for both the sessile and the medusoid stages cause spatial and temporal variations (Mills, 2001; Malej e… Alexandrium catenella is widespread in western North America and produces a suite of potent neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans and have deleterious impacts on public health and economic resources. A study of a naturally occurring compound that may control some toxic HABs will continue to test its effectiveness and environmental impacts. Taxonomical Description: A chain-forming species, A. catenella typically occurs in characteristic short chains of 2, 4 or 8 cells (Figs. In: D.M. Experimental Gulf of Maine Alexandrium catenella Nowcast/Forecast Simulation Models initiated from a cyst abundance map from October 2018, with germination, growth, and transport of Alexandrium catenella cells in the Gulf of Maine. State of California Dept. The genus Alexandrium or Gonyaulax of the tamarensis group. Vila M, Garces E, Maso M, Camp J, 2001. • (2302) Reject Gonyaulax catenella TAXON 63 (4) • August 2014: 932–933 PROPOSALS TO CONSERVE OR REJECT NAMES Edited by John McNeill, Scott A. Redhead & John H. Wiersema (2302) Proposal to reject the name Gonyaulax catenella (Alexandrium catenella) (Dinophyceae)Uwe John,1 Wayne Litaker,2 Marina Montresor,3 Shauna Murray,4 Michael L. Brosnahan5 Sci. In: P. Lassus, G. Arzul, E. Erard, P. Gentien and C. Marcaillou (eds), Harmful Marine Algal Blooms, Lavoisier, Intercept Ltd: 15-20. aap=anterior attachment pore; Po=apical pore plate. In order to accumulate the basic data and the raw material for future research, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) of Alexandrium catenella cultured in the laboratory was studied. Bull. 1985. Alexandrium catenella causes major economic impacts for the Chilean shellfish and fish farm industries, but the environmental conditions that regulate the encystment timing and cyst production rate in the seasonally variable fjords are poorly understood. HABs are typically formed through the growth and accumulation of algal cells in the water column. The most well known harmful algal bloom (HAB) on the east coast is Alexandrium catenella, also known as the Gulf of Maine “red tide.” This toxic dinoflagellate produces saxitoxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in human consumers. HAB frequently asked questions and links from Virginia's Department of Health. Aquat. Culturing of Alexandrium.. Alexandrium minutum cultures were established from sediment and water samples collected from a number of sites along the coast of Ireland (Fig. UNESCO, France: 283-317. A. catenella forms dormant cysts that overwinter on the seafloor. NOAA is pioneering use of the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) to make ocean observations that serve state and industry management needs. 2. Alexandrium catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Balech was isolated from Thau lagoon (northern Mediterranean) and its growth and uptake characteristics measured for nitrate, ammonium, and urea. Interesting Facts: Several species, including Alexandrium catenella, are toxic and/or bioluminescent. 92: 31-34. … I. 1). 2,3) (Fukuyo, 1985). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. Gene expression and molecular evolution of sxtA4 in a saxitoxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Maria Wiese a, b, *, Shauna A. Murray b, c, Alfonsus Alvin a, Brett A. Neilan a, b a School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia b Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Chowder Bay Rd, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia 1,5). The toxigenic gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates. Their round cells are identified by the shape and position of their pores and are often found in chains although solitary cells can also be observed. Harmful Algae. Although affinity constants did not indicate a preference for ammonium over nitrate, there was a strong inhibition of nitrate uptake by ammonium when both nitrogen (N) sources were present. Distribution. This species also has a sexual cycle with opposite mating types (heterothallism). )Alex.catenella3.TIF (Fig. Resting cyst: elliptical with rounded ends. 2,9). (Fig.1 1 and Table Table1). C. gigas produced faeces and pseudofaeces containing intact and viable temporary pellicular cysts of these two Paralytic toxin producing species. You can continue searching for Alexandrium catenella on one of these Web sites: Fauna Europaea (animals) | IOPI (plants) | NCBI (genetic). Interesting Facts: Several species, including Alexandrium catenella, are toxic and/or bioluminescent. It has been observed off the west coast of North America, Chile, Argentina, western South Africa and Japan (Smithsonian 2012). Alexandrium catenella, originally described as Gonyaulax. Cysts have a wide size range: 38-56 µm in length to 23-32 µm in width (Fukuyo, 1985, Hallegraeff, 1991, Meksumpun et al., 1994).Toxicity: Alexandrium catenella is a known toxin-producing dinoflagellate species; it is the first species ever linked to paralytic shellfish poisoning, PSP. Alexandrium fundyense is a photosynthetic marine dinoflagellate that lives in the upper water column (photic-zone) of coastal waters (2). Three aliquots of Lugol‐fixed net samples consisting of a bloom of dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Gonyaulax were spiked with 100, 10 and one Alexandrium catenella cells; another aliquot of the same sample was processed without adding A. catenella cells. Bull. The fish and shellfish escape poisoning as the algal toxin is bound by the hepatopancreas from where … The presence of the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in the north western (NW) Mediterranean Sea has been known since 1983. White and D.G. )Alex.catenella6.TIF (Fig. Eating seafood tainted with algal toxins can sicken or even kill people. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) define species of the genus Alexandrium. These toxins can affect humans, other mammals, fish and birds (Prakash et al., 1971). Intense blooms of A. catenella have also been measured within the Beagle Channel in southern Argentina [21–23]. Mar. Populations have been recorded from the west coast of North America (from California to Alaska), Chile, Argentina, western South Africa, Japan, Australia and Tasmania (Fukuyo, 1985, Fukuyo et al., 1985, Fukuyo et al., 1990, Hallegraeff, 1991, Hallegraeff et al., 1991, Taylor et al., 1995, Steidinger and Tangen, 1996). However, excluding some Alexandrium species responsible for PSP, there are no critical reports on the morphology of Alexandrium species in this bay. Toxic algal blooms pose a serious health risk and often disrupt valuable regional shellfisheries. Hallegraeff, D.M. ESPs robotically detect algal cells and toxin at sea and warn managers when levels rise. ESP data can also be assimilated into numerical models to improve the accuracy of bloom forecasts. On the skeletal morphology of two new species, Gonyaulax catenella and G. acatenella. Dec. 2, 2020. It is associated with toxic PSP blooms in cold water coastal regions.Taxonomical Description: A chain-forming species, A. catenella typically occurs in characteristic short chains of 2, 4 or 8 cells (Figs. A. catenella, while the flattened round cysts of A. peruvianum were very similar to those of A. taylori. 273-283. EOL has data for 15 attributes, including: cell volume. catenella by Whedon and Kofoid (1936), is also a harmful. Sci. Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. Mar. 1' plate in direct contact with Po. The presence of the paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in the north western (NW) Mediterranean Sea has been known since 1983. Biotoxins in Maine Bull. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in eastern Canada. )Alex.catenella8.TIF (Fig. From this date on, the species has spread along the Spanish and Italian coastlines. Line drawing. Publ. Prakash, A., J.C. Medcof and A.D. Tennant 1971. The presence of neurotoxic species within the genus Alexandrium along the U.S. coastline has raised concern of potential poisoning through the consumption of contaminated seafood. In chain forms, anterior attachment pores (aap) and posterior attachment pores (pap) are present (Fig. species that has been record ed in Korean coastal waters (Kim 2000). Seliger (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier / North-Holland, New York: 47-56. Alexandrium catenella (Whedon and Kofoid) Balech, 1985bSpecies Overview: Alexandrium catenella is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate. Other HABs that create issues in the region include Margoleffidinium, Alexandrium monilatum, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Karlodinium. This species is known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning. The toxic planktonic dinoflagellate alga Alexandrium catenella produces a variety of potent neurotoxins that accumulate in shellfish and cause severe illness or death if humans consume contaminated shellfish. These cysts then overwinter in bottom sediments until environmental conditions trigger them to germinate and initiate a bloom. Chesapeake Bay & Coastal Bays Monitoring 33. 2182 JUNE 2012 v TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Fish. 2-4,9). Molecular testing conducted on A. catenella from Japan and A. tamarense from Japan and the U.S.A. revealed a close genetic relationship between the two species, however they remain distinct (Adachi et al., 1995).Chains of this species are quite distinctive, but can resemble A. tamiyavanichi; however, A. tamiyavanichi is a warm water species and can be distinguished from A. catenella by its conical shape (Taylor et al., 1995).Ecology: A. catenella is a planktonic dinoflagellate species associated with deadly PSP events mostly in the Pacific Ocean. Sci. They are also associated with high-nitrogen environments. 46: 1031-1034. In: Taylor, D.L. Except for A. catenella and A. fraterculus, which were reported for different locations in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), the other five species were recorded only once for the northeast (A. tamiyavanichi), southeast (Alexandrium sp., A. tamutum), and south (Alexandrium gaardnerae and A. kutnerae) parts of the country. Drajad S. Seto, Lee Karp-Boss, Mark L. Wells, Effects of increasing temperature and acidification on the growth and competitive success of Alexandrium catenella from the Gulf of Maine, Harmful Algae, 10.1016/j.hal.2019.101670, 89, (101670), (2019). Zool. The APC and 1' plate.). Species of the toxigenic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium in southeastern Australian waters. Usup G, Pin L C, Ahmad A, Teen L P, 2002. 1979b. New England Harmful Algal Bloom / Red Tide Information Long Island Sound: Harmful Algal Blooms and Marine Biotoxins It is associated with toxic PSP blooms in cold water coastal regions. Adachi, M., Y. Sako, A. Uchida and Y. Ishida 1995. Alexandrium catenella Protists Kingdom Any body of water References Achievements Other euglena, neighborhood pool Paramecium, Peace River Amoeba, Found moving and feeding with pseudopods Combination of both plant and animal Attributes or contributions Lake Okeechobee: Was a food Nitrogen … Biol. Resting cysts play an important role in the origin and initiation of Alexandrium dinoflagellate blooms in different coastal environments. The 16 Alexandrium strains used in this study were chosen because of their potential to produce toxins as they all belong to the former A. tamarense species complex (Scholin et al., 1994). 177: 1-87. Fish. In situ (on site) sensors on moorings provide real-time data on chlorophyll and phycocyanin relative fluorescence for Long Island Sound, New York. Alexandrium catenella Phylum of Dinoflagellates North Pacific Ocean [email protected] Objective I am searching for a job at a cool coastal ocean near California. Single cells are round, slightly wider than long, and are anterio-posteriorly compressed (Figs. SEM. We will map the distribution of cysts and evaluate areas favorable for Alexandrium cyst germination New research will investigate how microscopic animals control the growth and toxicity of Alexandrium. The epitheca and hypotheca are nearly equal in height. They also form large aggregations in the coastal waters of China, but the abundance varies greatly in different locations and between years (Dong et al., 2010). Fukuyo, Y. Whedon, W.F. 34: 575-587. A review of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium occurring in Brazilian coastal waters is presented based on both published information and new data. It is a part of the Thecate group or “armored dinoflagellates” meaning it has thecal plates made of cellulose surrounding the cell like armor (Figures 1 and 2) (2). )Alex.catenella9.TIF (Fig. The nucleus is large and U-shaped (Whedon and Kofoid, 1936).Reproduction: A. catenella reproduces asexually by binary fission. The profile of tetrahydropurine neurotoxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) was determined from a Chilean strain of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Toxic blooms and PSP in shellfish have been reported in Chile (Avaria, 1979), Japan (Onoue et al., 1980, Onoue et al., 1981a, Onoue et al., 1981b), California (Sharpe, 1981) and most of the Pacific coast of the U.S.A. (Nishitani and Chew, 1988).Habitat and Locality: Alexandrium catenella is widely distributed in cold temperate coastal waters. 6,7). Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring System and H.H. Alexandrium catenella (Whedon and Kofoid) Balech, 1985b Species Overview: Alexandrium catenella is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate. Cells range in size between 20-48 µm in length and 18-32 µm in width (Fukuyo, 1985, Fukuyo et al., 1985, Fukuyo et al., 1990, Hallegraeff, 1991, Taylor et al., 1995, Steidinger and Tangen, 1996). Bd. Firstly, in the logarithmic phase the algae cells were inoculated, the cell growth rate kept higher in initial 8 days. 1979. These HABs kill fish and shellfish, impacting both aquaculture and wild stocks. Image 5: Alexandrium and Mesodinium, courtesy of W. Gurske. The apical pore complex (APC) is broad, triangular and widens dorsally (Figs. Most also cause high biomass blooms that discolor the water brown or red. Alexandrium species are considered armored dinoflagellates, because they are covered with thecal plates.Alexandrium have two flagella.. Alexandrum tamarense is an autotrophic organism, as is Alexandrium minutum, which obtains energy through photosynthesis.However, there are heterotrophic species as well. Maine’s Department of Marine Resources Public Health Bureau monitors several biotoxins produced by different types of marine algae known as phytoplankton. At 15 PSU, both the growth rate and the maximum cell density showed the lowest values (0.153 cells div/day and 10 925 cells/mL). Although affinity constants did not indicate a preference for ammonium over nitrate, there was a strong inhibition of nitrate uptake by ammonium when both nitrogen (N) sources were present. Stonybrook University Real time Water Quality Data Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. This species is responsible for numerous human illnesses and several deaths after consumption of tainted shellfish. Balech (in Anderson & al., Toxic Dinoflagellates: 37. Cell counts of HABs in Virginia. New toxins separated from oysters and Protogonyaulax catenella from Senzaki Bay, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Cell in ventral view. The dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (Whedon and Kofoid) Balech is widely distributed in temperate coastal watersthroughout theworld (Hallegraeff, 1993)and is re-sponsible for many outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poi-soning (PSP). Continuing research will use remote toxin sensors to determine how shellfish in the eastern Gulf of Maine become toxic. Japan. During the winter months of temperate regions, the cysts remain dormant because of the cold temperatures. Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae), Alexandrium catenella adn Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). Jpn. show all records. From this date on, the species has spread along the Spanish and Italian coastlines. Definition: Volume of one cell. Alexandrium catenella. Fish. Asexual reproduction through binary fission is most common (steps 1-3 on the life cycle). Avaria, S.P. Vila M, Garces E, Maso M, Camp J, 2001. In southern Chile, Alexandrium catenella is the main species generating harmful algal blooms (HABs) and over time it has expanded its range since it was first recorded in the Magallanes region in 1972. Improving the Gulf of Maine HAB Forecast with Environmental Sample Processors Alexandrium catenella Protists Kingdom Any body of water References Achievements Other euglena, neighborhood pool Paramecium, Peace River Amoeba, Found moving and feeding with pseudopods Combination of both plant and animal Attributes or contributions Lake Okeechobee: Was a food Alexandrium catenella Paulina Uribe1 and Romilio T. Espejo2* Laboratorio de Bioingeniería, Instituto de Nutricio´n y Tecnología de los Alimentos,2 and Laboratorio de Toxinas Marinas, Instituto de Ciencias Biome´dicas, Facultad de Medicina,1 Universidad de Chile, Chile Received 13 … Meksumpun, S., S. Montani and M. Uematsu 1994. Hallegraeff, G.M. State of Virginia Algal Bloom Surveillance Map Seliger (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier / North Holland, New York: 161-164. White and D.G. 7. 2,3,9). State of Maryland Eyes on the Bay Harmful Algal Blooms Thecal Plate Description: The plate formula for A. catenella is: Po, 4', 6'', 6c, 8s, 5''', 2''''. Alexandrium catenella is an armored dinoflagellate, approximately 24-24µm long and 22-44µm wide. 1,5). Can. 1 (3), 265-275. Four cell chain. Alexandrium catenella (formerly A. tamarense) was identified as the cause of PSP outbreaks in 1980 and has been recorded annually from southern Argentina up to the coast. NOAA's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science developed this site to routinely deliver near real-time products for use in locating, monitoring, and quantifying algal blooms in coastal and lake regions of the U.S. In: D.M. PSP toxins in the Pacific coast states: monitoring programs and effects on bivalve industries. Information concerning A. catenella isolates in the NW Mediterranean Sea was gained through phylogenetic studies. Blackburn and Y. Oshima 1991. Terminal (leaf) node. 1,5,8). 1991. Soc. Alex.catenella2.TIF (Fig. Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species in Malaysian waters. Experimental Gulf of Maine Alexandrium catenella Nowcast/Forecast Simulation OPUA BAY … Alexandrium catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Balech was isolated from Thau lagoon (northern Mediterranean) and its growth and uptake characteristics measured for nitrate, ammonium, and urea. The genus Centrodinium contains oceanic and predominantly tropical species that have received little attention. Red tides off the coast of Chile. Alexandrium monilatum is a common HAB (harmful algal bloom) species that historically blooms along the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U.S., with a recent expansion into the mid-Atlantic region and Chesapeake Bay. A. catenella is found in cold temperate coastal waters (Smithsonian 2012). 3. LM. In Japan, A. catenella occurs mainly in the western Pacific coast region and the Seto Inland Sea 47: 1347-1350. This toxin is also produced by G. catenatum and Gonyaulax catenella, now renamed Alexandrium. We do not know for certain how long this has been going on and whether it will expand its range and spread to other regions within the Sounds, however this seems likely. 4. In the lower Chesapeake Bay, a new study to better predict Margalefidinium and Alexandrium monilatum blooms, and a continuing project on the toxicity and food web impacts of A. monilatum will help the shellfish industry minimize their impacts. Generally, populations of A. catenella have been found in the North Pacific, South Pacific and South Atlantic (Horner 2012). Alexandrium catenella is widely distributed in cold temperate coastal waters. 37: 533-534. The genus can be found in oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic coastlines. 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